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5/31/1921 12:00:00 AM - A Black Holocaust In America

The Tulsa Riot of 1921 This is the worst riot in american history. 15,000 Blacks wer left homeless, between 300 and 3000 were killed, wounded and/or missing, 1500 homes were burned to the ground and over 600 Black owned businesses in a 35 square block area were bombed in the all Black Greenwood District of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was the first american city to be bombed by airplanes. More peope died this day than in any single event since the civil war. White historians did an excelent job in wiping their footprints from the sand. Reference to this can't be found in any history books. Go to www.Blackwallstreet.freeservers.com, for the true story with pictures.
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3/17/1865 12:00:00 AM - Aaron Anderson wins the Navy's Medal of Honor for his heroic actions aboard the

Aaron Anderson wins the Navy's Medal of Honor for his heroic actions aboard the USS Wyandank during the Civil War.
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4/19/1866 12:00:00 AM - abolition of slavery

On April 19, 1866, the African American citizens of Washington D.C. celebrated the abolition of slavery. 4,000 to 5,000 people assembled to the White House addressed by Andrew Johnson. Led by two black regiments the spectators, and the procession proceeded up the Pennsylvania Avenue to Franklin Square for religious services and speeched by prominiet politicians. The sign on top of the platform read: "We have recieved our civil rights. Give us the right of suffrage and the work is done."
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4/11/1972 12:00:00 AM - Benjamin L. Hooks

Benjamin L. Hooks, a Memphis lawyer-minister, becomes the first African American named to the Federal Communications Commission.
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2/21/1987 12:00:00 AM - Black Rebellion in Tampa, Florida

African Americans in Tampa, Florida rebelled after an African American man was killed by a white police officer while in custody.
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3/3/1869 12:00:00 AM - Black Regiment founded

The 38th and 41st Infantry regiments were joined and became the 24th Infantry Regiment, the third of four proposed African American regiments in teh U.S. Army. Following the Civil War the regiment was poted in Texas from 1869 to 1880.
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4/3/1865 12:00:00 AM - Black Union Soliders

Fifth Massachusetts Colored Cavalry and units of the Twenty-fifth Corps were in the vanguard of Union troops entering Richmond. Second Division of Twenty-Fifth Corps helped chase Robert E. Lee's army from Petersburg to Appomattox Court House, April 3-10. The Black division and white Union soldiers were advancing on General Lee's trapped army with fixed bayonets when the Confederate troops surrendered.
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5/1/1946 12:00:00 AM - Black Woman named "American Mother of the Year."

Emma Clarissa Clement, a black woman and mother of Atlanta University President Rufus E. Clement, was named "American Mother of the Year" by the Golden Rule Foundation. She was the first Afro-American woman to receive the honor.
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4/15/1861 12:00:00 AM - Blacks Denied Right to Fight for Country

President Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion. Lincoln administration rejected Black volunteers. For almost two years straight Black Americans fought for the right, as one humorist put it, "to be kilt".
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4/5/1839 12:00:00 AM - Civil War Hero

Robert Smalls was a Civil War hero and Reconstruction congress man.
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12/1/1641 12:00:00 AM - Colonies give Statutory Recognition

Massachusetts became the first colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. Other colonies followed: Connecticut 1650; Virginia, 1661; Maryland, 1663; New York and New Jersey, 1664; South Carolina, 1682; Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, 1700; North Carolina. 1715; Georgia, 1750.
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6/22/1868 12:00:00 AM - Congress at it again

Congress readmitted state of Arkansas on condition that it would never change its constitution to disenfranchise Blacks.
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6/17/1862 12:00:00 AM - Congress authorized President Lincoln to accept blacks in Union Army.

Congress authorized President Lincoln to accept blacks in Union Army.
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6/25/1868 12:00:00 AM - Congress cracks down on civil rights for blacks

Congress readmitted North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama and Florida on condition "that the constitutions of said states shall never be amended or changed as to deprive any citizen or class of citizens or the United States of the right to vote in said states who are entitled to vote by the constitutions thereof herein recognized."
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2/8/1894 12:00:00 AM - Congress repeals the Enforcement Act

Congress repeals the Enforcement Act which makes it easier for some states to disenfranchise African American voters.
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2/10/1868 12:00:00 AM - Conservatives, aided by military forces, seized

Conservatives, aided by military forces, seized convention hall and established effective control over Reconstruction process in Florida. Republican conservatives drafted new constitution which concentrated political power in hands of governor and limited the impact of the Black vote.
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4/2/1932 12:00:00 AM - Cowboy Willie "Bill" Pickett dies

World famous African American cowboy Willie "Bill" Pickett died in Ponca, Oklahoma, hospital of injuries sustained after he was kicked in the head by a horse on the Miller's Brothers' Fabulous 101 Ranch.
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3/7/1870 12:00:00 AM - Denouncement of Klan violence

Gov. William W. Holden of North Carolina denounced Klan violence and issued proclaimation declaring Almanance County in a state of insurrection.
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3/24/1912 12:00:00 AM - Dorothy Height born

Birthday of Dorothy Irene Height in Richmond, Virginia. Height, president of the National Council of Negro Women for more than three decades, organized a successful drive to place a statue of Mary McLeod Bethune in a District of Columbia park. Once erected, the statue became the first of an African American in a public park in Washington, D.C.
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3/27/1969 12:00:00 AM - Dr.C.Eric Lincoln

Dr. C. Eric Lincoln, professor of religion and sociology at Union Theological Seminary, was elected president of the organization.
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3/3/1863 12:00:00 AM - Draft Act Passed

During the height of the Civil War, Congress passed this act which mandated military service for all men between the ages of twenty and forty five.
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5/14/1885 12:00:00 AM - Erskine Henderson African American jockey wins

Erskine Henderson African American jockey wins the Kentucky Derby on a horse trained by African American trainer Alex Perry.
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6/13/1868 12:00:00 AM - Ex-slave Oscar J. Dunn

Ex-slave Oscar J. Dunn becomes lieutenant governor of Louisiana. It is the highest executive office held by an African American to date.
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3/15/1911 12:00:00 AM - Fifty-fifth Congress (1897-99) Convened

Fifty-fifth Congress (1897-99) convened. One Black congressman: George H. White, North Carolina.
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3/4/1889 12:00:00 AM - Fifty-first Congress convened

Fifty-first Congress convened. Three Black congressmen: Henry P. Cheatham, North Carolina; Thomas E. Miller, South Carolina; John M. Langston, Virginia.
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2/27/1833 12:00:00 AM - First American-born woman to give public lectures

On this day in 1833, Maria W. Steward delivered one of the four speeches which confirmed her place in history as the first American-born woman to give public lectures. Stewards lectures focused on encouraging African-Americans to attain education, political rights, and public recognition for their achievements. Her speech on thi day delivered at the African Masonic Hall in Boston, Massachusetts, was titled "On African Rights and Liberty." Sixty-seven years later in Boston on this same day, African-American teacher and poet Angelina Weld Grimke was born. Grimke was a descendant of the famous white abolitionist and feminist sisters Angelina and Sarah Grimke.
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4/13/1669 12:00:00 AM - First Lutheran Baptism of African American

An African America man named Emmanuel was baptized April 13, 1669, (Palm Sunday) in a Lutheran congregation in New York.
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3/4/1869 12:00:00 AM - Forty-second Congress convened

Forty-second Congress convened (1871-73) with five Black congressmen: Joseph H. Rainey, Robert Carlos Delarge and Robert Brown Elliott,South Carolina; Benjamin S. Turner, Alabama; Josiah T. Walls, Florida. Walls was elected in an at-large election and was the first Black congressman to represent an entire state.
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3/1/1960 12:00:00 AM - Four national chain stores announced

Four national chain stores announced on October 17 that counters in about 150 stores in 112 cities in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Texas, Tennessee, Missouri, Maryland, Florida and Oklahoma had been integrated.
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5/9/1862 12:00:00 AM - Freeing of Slaves

On May 9, 1862 General Hunter of the Union Army issued a proclomation freeing the slaves of Georgia, Florida and South Carolina. A displeased President Lincoln anulled this act. Lincoln stated, "General Hunter is an honest man...He proclaimed all men free within certain states. I repudiated the proclomation."
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2/12/1865 12:00:00 AM - Henry Highland Garnet, first Black to speak in the

Henry Highland Garnet, first Black to speak in the Capitol, delivered memorial sermon on the abolition of slavery at services in the House of Representatives. Henry Highland Garnet was born a slave in New Market, Maryland, in 1815. He escaped in 1824 and made his way to New York where he studied at the Oneida Theological Institute in Whitesboro before becoming a Presbyterian minister in Troy, New York. Garnet joined the Anti-Slavery Society and became one of the organizations leading lecturers. However, in 1843 he was disowned by the society when he called upon slaves to murder their masters. Garnet served as a pastor in Jamaica (1853-56) but returned to the United States during the Civil War and demanded that Abraham Lincoln permit the enlistment of African-American soldiers. In 1864 Garnet was appointed pastor of the 15th Street Presbyterian Church in Washington. During this period he became the first African-American to deliver a sermon before the House of Representatives. He also worked for the Freedmen's Bureau, where he was involved in developing programs to help former slaves. In 1881 Henry Highland Garnet was appointed minister to Liberia. However, he died two months later on 13th February, 1882.
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5/13/1862 12:00:00 AM - Heroic union seaman

Robert Smalls and 12 fellow Afro-American seamen captured the Planter, a cotton steamer converted into a Confederate battleship. Smalls piloted the gunboat into Union lines and presented the ship to the U.S. Navy at Charleston Harbor. Smalls was promoted to Captain during the Civil War
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3/13/1773 12:00:00 AM - Jean Baptiste Point du Sable established the first permanent settlement at 'Sk

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable established the first permanent settlement at 'Skikai-o,' meaning "the place of wild onions,' and is now known as Cicago, Illinois. This African-American merchant also established trading posts at present day Peoria, Illinois; Port Huron, Michigan; and Michigan City, Indiana. Du Sable's log cabin home, located at 401 North Michigan Avenue, became a national historic landmark in 1976. The Native Americans of the area have been known to say "the first white man to settle here was a negro."
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2/27/1869 12:00:00 AM - John W. Menard speaks in Congress

John W. Menard spoke in Congress in defense of his claim to a contested seat in Louisiana's Second Congressional District. Congress decided against both claimants. Congressman James A. Garfield of the examining committee said "it was too early to admit a Negro to the U.S. Congress." Menard was the first Black to make a speech in Congress.
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3/18/1860 12:00:00 AM - Journalist Ralph Waldo Tyler born

Birthday of Ralph Waldo Tyler, journalist, Auditor-General of the Navy and World War I foreign correspondent. Te oldest of 12 children, Tyler is believed to have been born in Ohio. He attended elementary and high schools in Columbus, Ohio, studied a year in Baldwin,Missouri, and began teaching school at age 19. Tyler taught himself shorthand while working as a janitor at the "Columbus Evening Dispatch." He later was given an opportunity to prove his reporting ability. Tyler worked in circulation, business and news departments of the paper and as an assitant to the manager and secretary to the owner. He became successful as a society reporter. He was the first African American foreign war correspondent and the only accredited African American correspondent in World War I. Both African American and White newspapers carried Tyelr's stories. He died in 1921.
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9/15/1923 12:00:00 AM - KKK activities effects Oklahoma

Governor said Oklahoma was in a "state of Virtual rebellion and insurrection" because of KKK activities. Martial Law was declared.
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6/6/1950 12:00:00 AM - Lt. Gen. Frank E. Petersen (1932-).

On June 6, 1950, Frank Petersen enlisted in the Navy. At the age of 20, he was the first Afro-American to be named a naval aviator in the Marine Corp. He was also the first African American to command a fighter squadon, a fighter air group, an air wing, and a major base. Lt. Gen. Frank. Petersen, was considered by his friends to be a leader and a gentleman in his affairs.
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5/2/1845 12:00:00 AM - Macon B. Allen

Macon B. Allen, first African American admitted to the bar in Massachusetts ; the previous year he was admitted to the bar in Maine making him the first licensed African American attorney in the U.S.A.
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5/28/1981 12:00:00 AM - Mary Lou Williams

Death of musician Mary Lou Williams (71), in Durham, North Carolina.
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4/28/1971 12:00:00 AM - Military Service

Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. became the first African American Admiral in the United States Navy.
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3/15/1933 12:00:00 AM - NAACP began a coordinated attack on segregation

NAACP began a coordinated attack on segregation and discrimination, filing a suit against the University of North Carolina on behalf of Thomas Hocutt. Case was lost on a technicality after the president of a Black college refused to certify the records of the plaintiff.
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2/15/1804 12:00:00 AM - New Jersey begins to abolish slavery

The New Jersey Legislature approved a law calling for "gradual" emancipation of African Americans. In so doing, New Jersey became the last Northern state to outlaw slavery.
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4/18/1861 12:00:00 AM - Nicholas Biddle

Nicholas Biddle becomes the first African American in uniform to be wounded in the Civil War
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2/25/1928 12:00:00 AM - One-Man Show of Art

"One-Man Show of Art by Negro, First of Kind Here, Opens Today," read the headline of a front-page article in 'The New York Times' on this day. The article announced the opening of Archibald J. Motley, Jr's show at the New Gallery on Madison Avenue. This was the first time in History that an artist had made the front page of 'The New York Times' and it was the second one-person show by an African-American artist (the first being Henry O. Tanner). African scenes, voodoo dances, and African-Americans at leisure were themes presented by the artist.
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4/29/1922 12:00:00 AM - Parren James Mitchell

Parren James Mitchell, first African American elected to Congress from Maryland, born
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5/10/1837 12:00:00 AM - PBS Pinchback, born

Pickney Benton Stewart Pinchback was born in rural Georgia. Pinchback entered Louisiana politics after the Civil War and became lieutenant governor of that Reconstruction Era state. For 43 days he actually served the office of governor of the state.
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4/8/1990 12:00:00 AM - Percy Julian, developer of drugs to combat glaucom

Percy Julian, developer of drugs to combat glaucoma and methods to mass produce cortisone and George Washington Carver are the first African American Inventors admitted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in the hall's 17-year history.
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3/8/1945 12:00:00 AM - Phyllis Mae Daley, first of four African American

Phyllis Mae Daley, first of four African American Navy nurses to serve active duty in WW II receives her commission as an ensign in the Navy Nurse Corps.
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5/24/1856 12:00:00 AM - Pottawatomie Massacre

The Pottawatomie Massacre took place in Kansas. A pro-slavery settlement in Franklin County was attacked by an anti-slavery group led by John Brown.
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4/3/2002 12:00:00 AM - Pressure From Congress

Pressure From Congress: After the Union Army suffered a series of military defeats in 1861 and 1862, pressure mounted on Lincoln to use African Americans as soldiers. Once again African American soldiers came to the rescue of America. As Charles Summer put it: I do not say carry the war into Africa, but carry Africa into the war. As desertions from Union Army increased, and whites enlisted plummeted, Congress passed the Confiscation Act on August 6, 1861, which authorized the president to enlist African Americans in the Army. Lincoln still refused. Then in October 1861, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton authorized General Thomas W. Sherman to use all loyal persons offering their services for the defense of the Union.
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5/2/1963 12:00:00 AM - Protestors Arrested in Birmingham

An established 2,543 African American and white civil rights demonstrators protesting segregation were arrested and jailed in Birmingham, Alabama.
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5/1/1867 12:00:00 AM - Reconstruction of the South began with the

Reconstruction of the South began with the registering of Black and white voters in the South. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan ordered registration to begin in Louisiana on May 1 and to continue until June 30. Registration began in Arkansas in May. Other states followed in June and July. By the end of October, 1,363,000 citizens had registered in the South, including 700,000 Blacks. Black voters constituted a majority in five states: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina.
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5/14/1867 12:00:00 AM - Riot, Mobile, Ala., after a Black mass meeting

Riot, Mobile, Ala., after a Black mass meeting. One Black and one white were killed. Knights of White Camelia, a paramilitary white supremacist organization, founded in Louisiana.
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3/15/1980 12:00:00 AM - Scores injured in Klan-related incidents

Scores injured in Klan-related incidents in Georgia, Tennessee, California, Indiana and North Carolina, in March and April.
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6/18/1862 12:00:00 AM - Slavery is abolished in U.S. territories

Slavery is abolished in U.S. territories by Congress
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6/1/1864 12:00:00 AM - Solomon George Washington Dill killed

Solomon George Washington Dill, poor white ally of Black Republicans, assassinated in his home by white terrorists. Dill had allegedly made "incendiary speeches" to South Carolina Blacks.
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3/5/1845 12:00:00 AM - Texas As a Slave State

President John Tyler signed the joint resolution of Congress to admit Texas as a slave state.
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4/18/1877 12:00:00 AM - The American Nicodemus Town Company is founded

The American Nicodemus Town Company is founded by six African American settlers in northwestern Kansas. The town will be settled later in the year.
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3/6/1857 12:00:00 AM - The Dred Scott decision.

On March 6, 1857, the Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court denied Blacks U.S. citizenship and denied the power of Congress to restrict slavery in any federal territory.
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5/17/1875 12:00:00 AM - The first Kentucky Derby

The first Kentucky Derby is won by African American jockey Oliver Lewis riding the horse Aristides. 14 of the 15 jockeys in the race are African Americans.
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3/3/1865 12:00:00 AM - The Freeman's Bureau.

The Freeman's Bureau was established by Congress on March 3, 1865. The bureau was designed to protect the interests of former slaves. This included helping them to find new employment and to improve educational and health facilities. In the year that followed the bureau spent $17,000,000 establishing 4,000 schools, 100 hospitals and providing homes and food for former slaves. The Freeman's Bureau also helped to establish Howard University in Washington in 1867. Instigated by the Radical Republicans in Congress it was named after General Oliver Howard, a civil War hero and commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees and a leading figure in the Freeman's Bureau. Attempts by Congress to extend the powers of the Freemen's Bureau was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson in February, 1866. This increased the conflict between Johnson and the Radical Republicans in Congress.
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4/11/1997 12:00:00 AM - The new Museum of African American History opens in Detroit. It is the largest

The new Museum of African American History opens in Detroit. It is the largest of its kind in the world.
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3/26/1991 12:00:00 AM - The Reverend Emmanuel Cleaver

The Reverend Emmanuel Cleaver becomes the first African American mayor of Kansas City, Mo.
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5/9/1750 12:00:00 AM - The South Carolina Gazette reports that Cae

The South Carolina Gazette reports that Caesar, a South Carolina slave has been granted his freedom and a life time annuity in exchange for his cures for poison and rattlesnake bite. Caesar and the famous James Derham of New Orleans are two of the earliest know African American medical practitioners.
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6/15/1864 12:00:00 AM - The Strageties of Battle

Grant outwitted Lee by shifting campaign from Cold Harbor to Petersburg. Surprise attack by Gen. W.F. ("Baldy") Smith succeeded but Smith hesitated and permitted rebels to reinforce their lines. Gen. Charles J. Paine's division spear-headed the attack, knocking mile-wide hole in Petersburg defense and capturing 200 of 300 rebels captured that day.
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3/18/1972 12:00:00 AM - The USS Jesse L. Brown, the first U.S. naval ship

The USS Jesse L. Brown, the first U.S. naval ship to be named after an African American naval officer is launched.
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4/20/1871 12:00:00 AM - Third Enforcement Act

Third Enforcement Act defined Klan conspiracy as a rebellion against the United States and empowered the president to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and declare martial law in rebellious areas.
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5/13/1865 12:00:00 AM - Two white regiments and a Black regiment, the

Two white regiments and a Black regiment, the Sixty-second U.S.C.T., fought the last action of the civil war at White's Ranch, Texas.
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4/21/1898 12:00:00 AM - Volunteer African American army units, including the 3rd Alabama, 3rd North Caro

Volunteer African American army units, including the 3rd Alabama, 3rd North Carolina, 6th Virginia, 9th Ohio, 9th Illinois, 23rd Kansas and 10th Cavalry regiments, some units with African American officers, took part in the Spanish-American War on Cuban soil. Some of these veterans, upon return to the United States, were treated with parades and speeches. Others were assaulted and even lynched.
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4/16/1862 12:00:00 AM - Wash., D.C. Slave Emancipation and Reparations

On April 16, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia. Passage of this act came 9 months before President Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. The act brought to conclusion decades of agitation aimed at ending what antislavery advocates called "the national shame" of slavery in the nation's capital. The law provided for immediate emancipation, compensation of up to $300 for each slave to loyal Unionist masters, voluntary colonization of former slaves to colonies outside the United States, and payments of up to $100 to each person choosing emigration. Over the next 9 months, the federal government paid almost $1 million for the freedom of approximately 3,100 former slaves. The District of Columbia Emancipation Act is the only example of compensated emancipation in the United States. Though its three-way approach of immediate emancipation, compensation, and colonization did not serve as a model for the future, it was an early signal of slavery's death. Emancipation was greeted with great jubilation by the District's African-American community. For many years afterward, black Washingtonians celebrated Emancipation Day on April 16 with parades and festivals
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3/4/1837 12:00:00 AM - Weekly Advocate changed its name

Weekly Advocate changed its name to the Colored American, the second major Black newspaper. Some forty Black newspapers were published before the Civil War.
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2/2/1914 12:00:00 AM - William Ellisworth Artist is born

William Ellisworth Artist is born in Washington,N.C. Educated at Syracuse University and a student of Augusta Savage. His works will be exhibited at Atlanta University, the Whitney Museum, the Two Centuries of Black American Art exhibit and collected by Fisk University, Hampton University, the North Carolina Museum of Art, and private collectors.
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4/26/1883 12:00:00 AM - William Levi Dawson

William Levi Dawson is born, first African American representative to chair a committee in Congress.
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3/24/1972 12:00:00 AM - Z. Alexander Looby

Z. Alexander Looby the first African American to serve on the Nashville City Council dies
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