Black Facts for February 22nd

Stokely Carmichael on the Black Panthers Politics

Education Facts

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2002 - Jonas Savimbi

Jonas Savimbi , in full Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (born August 3, 1934, Portuguese Angola—died February 22, 2002, near Lucusse, Angola), Angolan politician, the leader of a long-continuing guerrilla insurgency against the postindependence government of Angola.

The son of a railroad stationmaster, Savimbi was educated in mission schools and won a scholarship to study abroad. He studied medicine at the University of Lisbon in Portugal and then obtained a doctorate in political science at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1965. In 1961 Savimbi joined the Angolan independence leader Holden Roberto’s Popular Union of Angola (UPA), the rival of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). He broke with the UPA’s leader in 1966 and formed the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which fought against Portuguese colonial rule.

Savimbi was the only Angolan guerrilla leader who continued fighting within Angola until the nation reached independence from Portugal in 1975; by this time he had expanded his initially small band of supporters into a guerrilla army numbering in the thousands. UNITA was based in southeastern Angola and relied for its support on the Ovimbundu people, the largest ethnic group in the country. At various times, Savimbi obtained support from China, South Africa, and the United States as a counter to the Marxist, Soviet-supported MPLA, which controlled the central government. Savimbi continued to wage a disruptive guerrilla war against the MPLA throughout the 1970s and ’80s. In 1991 he signed a peace agreement with the MPLA-led Angolan government that halted the civil war and resulted in free, multiparty national elections in 1992. After losing these elections, Savimbi and UNITA resumed their military struggle for control of the country, with UNITA dominating most of the countryside. Talks were held again, leading to the Lusaka Accord of 1994: hostilities were to cease and forces were to be disengaged. José Eduardo dos Santos, president of Angola, offered

Politics Facts

1937 - Fleming, George (1937- )

Washington State politician George Fleming was born February 22, 1937, in Dallas, Texas, to parents A.R. and Lilla N. Fleming. He started post secondary education at the University of Washington, Seattle.  While attending the University, Fleming was running back and kicker for the Washington Huskies who was part of the 1960-61 team that won the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California.  In fact, Fleming scored the first points with a 44-yard field goal which was at that time the longest in Rose Bowl History.

In 1961, Fleming was the highest-drafted player into the National Football League from the Huskies. He went to the Oakland (California) Raiders as a second-round draft pick with an initial salary of $15,000 and a $3,500 signing bonus.  In the 1961 season Fleming kicked a 54-yard field goal, a team record until 2003.  He sat out the 1962 season, because of a salary dispute with the Raiders and the following year went to the Canadian Football League (CFL) where he played with the Winnipeg (Manitoba) Bombers.  Fleming led the CFL in scoring as a rookie with 135 points and set a league record with a 55-yard field goal.  Fleming retired from professional football in 1966.

In 1968, George Fleming was elected to the Washington House of Representatives.  Two years later in 1970 he was the first African American to be elected to the Washington State Senate.  While in the Senate he served as Vice-Chair of the Democratic Caucus from 1973 to 1980 and as Caucus Chairman from 1980 to 1988.  While in office, Fleming was an advocate for the underprivileged, a state Martin Luther King Day holiday, control of illicit drugs, improvements in the quality of education, small business and economic development, and civil rights.  He also fought to improve the quality of nursing homes for senior citizens and was an advocate of low income housing and emergency meals and shelter for the homeless.  George Fleming retired in 1990 after twenty two years of service in the state legislature.

University of Washington, Seattle

1979 - Castries, St. Lucia (1650 - )

Castries, capital of St. Lucia, is also the largest city on the island.  The latest estimates show its population as about 20,000.  St. Lucia with a total population of 163,362 (July 2014 est.) is part of the Windward Islands chain which forms the boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.   

Arawak and Carib Indians inhabited St. Lucia exclusively until 1502, when a group of French sailors became the first Europeans to reach the island.  European settlement, however, was stalled for more than a century by fierce resistance from the Caribs.

The French founded Castries in 1650, naming it “Carénage,” which means "safe anchorage," in reference to the city’s deep water port.  It adopted the name Castries in 1756 in honor of Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix, Marquis de Castries and Commander of a fleet of French ships.  

By 1746 the French established an agreement with the Caribs that allowed more European settlement on the island.  Also by that point the French had introduced sugar plantations and developed a thriving agricultural economy based on forced African labor.

Meanwhile St Lucia became a major prize in the British-French rivalry for control of the Caribbean and its lucrative sugar economy.  During the 17th and 18th centuries England and France were at war fourteen times, during which control of the island switched seven times.  At one point St. Lucia was considered so valuable because of its sugar production that the British and French were willing to trade all of Canada for the island.

In 1814 the British finally took permanent control of the island, making Castries a major naval port in the region over the next three decades.  Because of its harbor, Castries was the only Eastern Caribbean port that could accommodate the largest warships.

Despite the abolition of slavery in 1833, the island’s economy remained based on the production of tropical commodity crops like sugar, bananas, and coffee.  By this point 90% of the residents of both Castries and the island of St Lucia were of

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