On December 10, 1963, while still the leading spokesman for the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X gave a speech at a rally in Detroit, Michigan. That speech outlined his basic black nationalist philosophy and established him as a major critic of the civil rights movement. The speech appears below.
And during the few moments that we have left, we want to have just an off-the-cuff chat between you and me -- us. We want to talk right down to earth in a language that everybody here can easily understand. We all agree tonight, all of the speakers have agreed, that America has a very serious problem. Not only does America have a very serious problem, but our people have a very serious problem. America"s problem is us. We"re her problem. The only reason she has a problem is she doesn"t want us here. And every time you look at yourself, be you black, brown, red, or yellow -- a so-called Negro -- you represent a person who poses such a serious problem for America because you"re not wanted. Once you face this as a fact, then you can start plotting a course that will make you appear intelligent, instead of unintelligent.
What you and I need to do is learn to forget our differences. When we come together, we don"t come together as Baptists or Methodists. You don"t catch hell "cause you"re a Baptist, and you don"t catch hell "cause you"re a Methodist. You don"t catch hell "cause you"re a Methodist or Baptist. You don"t catch hell because you"re a Democrat or a Republican. You don"t catch hell because you"re a Mason or an Elk. And you sure don"t catch hell "cause you"re an American; "cause if you was an American, you wouldn"t catch no hell. You catch hell "cause you"re a black man. You catch hell, all of us catch hell, for the same reason.
So we are all black people, so-called Negroes, second-class citizens, ex-slaves. You are nothing but a ex-slave. You don"t like to be told that. But what else are you? You are ex-slaves. You didn"t come here on the "Mayflower." You came here on a slave ship -- in chains, like a horse, or a cow,