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Black Facts for September 18th

1895 - (1895) Booker T. Washington, "The Atlanta Compromise Speech"

On September 18, 1895 Booker T. Washington gave an address to the Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition which became known as the “Atlanta Compromise Speech.” The address appears below.

Mr. President, Gentlemen of the Board of Directors, and Citizens:

One-third of the population of the South is of Negro race. No enterprise seeking the material, civil, or moral welfare of this section can disregard this element of our population and reach the highest success. I but convey to you, Mr. President and Directors, the sentiment of the masses of my race, when I say that in no way have the value and manhood of the American Negro been more fittingly and generously recognized, than by the managers of this magnificent Exposition at every stage of its progress. It is a recognition which will do more to cement the friendship of the two races than any occurrence since the dawn of our freedom.

Not only this, but the opportunity here afforded will awaken among us a new era of industrial progress. Ignorant and inexperienced, it is not strange that in the first years of our new life we began at the top instead of the bottom; that a seat in Congress or the State Legislature was more sought than real estate or industrial skill; that the political convention or stump speaking had more attractions than starting a dairy farm or truck garden.

A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen the signal: “Water, water, we die of thirst.” The answer from the friendly vessel at once came back, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A second time the signal, “Water, send us water,” ran up from the distressed vessel and was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” The captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction cast down his bucket and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land, or who underestimate the importance of

1970 - Hendrix, Jimi (1942-1970)

Legendary self-taught, left-handed guitarist Jimi Hendrix was born and raised in Seattle, Washington, the son of Lucille Jeter Hendrix and Al Hendrix.  Jimi grew up in poverty but he loved science fiction, art, nearby Lake Washington and music, especially the R&B masters, Chuck Berry and Ray Charles. By high school he was an accomplished guitarist.  Hendrix left high school to join the 101st Airborne so he could jump out of airplanes.

After his stint with the U.S. Army Jimi resumed his musical career and eventually played with some of the best rhythm and blues bands in the U.S. at the time.   In early 1964 he moved to New York, was hired by the Isley Brothers, and then he toured with Little Richard and Ike and Tina Turner.  By 1965 he set off on his own as Jimi James and the Blue Flames.  Hendrix applied blues harmony to rock progressions and played psychedelic rock solos in the middle of blues classics. By 1966 he had mastered techniques of sound distortion by using a fuzz box that made a “light string sound heavy and a heavy string sound like a sledgehammer” and by overdriving his amplifier. He played the guitar with his teeth, behind his back and under his legs.

In September 1966, Jimi went to London where he became an overnight success.  The Jimi Hendrix Experience was formed with Mitch Mitchell on drums and Noel Redding on bass and they quickly gained fame in Europe. Jimi’s sensational performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in June 1967 made him a rock star in the U.S. On their first American tour in 1968, the Experience played 49 cities in 51 days. They released three full albums: Are You Experienced?, Axis: Bold as Love and Electric Ladyland. Hendrix recorded a live album, Band of Gypsys, with Billy Cox and Buddy Miles.

Jimi will be remembered for his daring rendition of “The Star Spangled Banner” at Woodstock in 1969, called “the greatest moment of the sixties” by Al Aronwitz, pop critic of the New York Post.  Although his musical roots were in R&B and blues, Hendrix became a pioneer innovator in

1970 - Jimi Hendrix

Jimi Hendrix was a rock music legend and one of the most talented guitarists of all time. He was born Johnny Allen Hendrix on November 27, 1942 in Seattle, Washington to James Allen Ross Hendrix and Lucille Jeter. His parents had a tempestuous relationship and Hendrix and his siblings were raised in difficult circumstances. He was often left in the care of relatives and acquaintances while his parents neglected their duties. From an early age, Hendrix was crazy about music.

His favorite genre was blues and he often used to carry a broom with him, pretending that it was a guitar as he couldn’t afford to buy a real one. He first learnt to play a broken ukulele which had only one string. At the age of 15, his father relented to his endless yearning and bought him an acoustic guitar for $5. He taught himself to play by listening to other musicians such as Elvis Presley. His father bought him his first electric guitar in 1959. Hendrix joined a few small time bands and began to perform with them.

At the age of 19, he joined the army in order to avoid jail time for riding in stolen cars. He spent a little over a year there and was discharged in June 1962. During his service, he met fellow musician Billy Cox and the two began performing together. They moved to Tennessee and formed a band called “the King Kasuals”. He also performed as a backup guitarist for several performers as Little Richard, Sam Cooke and the Isley Brothers. His first big break came in 1966 when he met Chas Chandler, a member of a successful rock group called the Animals. Chandler became Hendrix’s manager and advised him to move to London.

In London, Hendrix met Noel Redding and Mitch Mitchell with whom he created his first successful band called “The Jimi Hendrix Experience”. Hendrix gained great fame there and became well known with the most successful and popular musicians such as The Beatles, The Who, The Rolling Stones and Eric Clapton. The band’s first single was “Hey Joe” from their debut album “Are You Experienced” and it was a huge success.

1951 - Ben Carson

Ben Carson is a famous surgeon, who is well known for the surgeries he has performed to separate conjoined twins. He was born in Detroit, Michigan on September 18, 1951 to Sonya and Robert Carson. Sonya came from a poor Baptist family, and had married Robert at the age of 13. When she found out her husband had another wife and family, she left him and took her two sons Curtis and Ben with her. Thus, Ben and his brother grew up in impoverished financial circumstances. Their mother worked many jobs, usually as a domestic servant, and for very long hours. It was often days before Ben and his brother saw their mother. The boys would wear second hand clothing, and eat produce obtained from the local farmers market in exchange for working on the farm.

Ben and Curtis initially went through a very difficult time at school. They went to a predominantly white school, and would sometimes be teased by their classmates. Ben developed a nasty temper and would often get into fights with his classmates. He was also a low achiever academically, and ranked at the bottom of his class, which led to more teasing by the other children. Sonya, however, was determined to see her sons do better at school, so she took their education into her own hands. She prohibited them to watch television, except for two programs a week. She also frequently took them to the public library and made them read two books per week. The boys had to write book reports on what they had read which their mother then checked.

Ironically enough, Sonya had only studied till 3rd grade, and could hardly read what her sons had written. However, the boys soon got into the habit of reading and began to enjoy it. Remarkably enough, Ben Carson went from being at the bottom of his class, to being the highest achiever, which earned him a certificate of merit. He graduated with honors from high school, and earned a scholarship to attend Yale University. He had to work through college to pay off his debt, but he managed to earn a degree in psychology in 1973. After

1850 - Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

For the slave act of 1793, see Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.

‹ The template Infobox U.S. legislation is being considered for merging. ›

The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.

The Act was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a slave power conspiracy. It required that all escaped slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters and that officials and citizens of free states had to cooperate in this law. Abolitionists nicknamed it the Bloodhound Law for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves.[1]

By 1843, several hundred slaves a year were successfully escaping to the North, making slavery an unstable institution in the border states.[1]

The earlier Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was a Federal law which was written with the intent to enforce Article 4, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which required the return of runaway slaves. It sought to force the authorities in free states to return fugitive slaves to their masters.

Many Northern states wanted to circumvent the Fugitive Slave Act. Some jurisdictions passed personal liberty laws, mandating a jury trial before alleged fugitive slaves could be moved; others forbade the use of local jails or the assistance of state officials in the arrest or return of alleged fugitive slaves. In some cases, juries refused to convict individuals who had been indicted under the Federal law.[2]

The Missouri Supreme Court routinely held with the laws of neighboring free states, that slaves who had been voluntarily transported by their owners into free states, with the intent of the masters residing there permanently or indefinitely, gained their freedom as a result.[3] The Fugitive Slave Law dealt with slaves who escaped to free states without their masters consent. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in Prigg v.

1850 - Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

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Approved, September 18, 1850

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons who have been, or may hereafter be, appointed commissioners, in virtue of any act of Congress, by the Circuit Courts of the United States, and Who, in consequence of such appointment, are authorized to exercise the powers that any justice of the peace, or other magistrate of any of the United States, may exercise in respect to offenders for any crime or offense against the United States, by arresting, imprisoning, or bailing the same under and by the virtue of the thirty-third section of the act of the twenty-fourth of September seventeen hundred and eighty-nine, entitled An Act to establish the judicial courts of the United States shall be, and are hereby, authorized and required to exercise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this act.

Sec. 2.

And be it further enacted, That the Superior Court of each organized Territory of the United States shall have the same power to appoint commissioners to take acknowledgments of bail and affidavits, and to take depositions of witnesses in civil causes, which is now possessed by the Circuit Court of the United States; and all commissioners who shall hereafter be appointed for such purposes by the Superior Court of any organized Territory of the United States, shall possess all the powers, and exercise all the duties, conferred by law upon the commissioners appointed by the Circuit Courts of the United States for similar purposes, and shall moreover exercise and discharge all the powers and duties conferred by this act.

Sec. 3.

And be it further enacted, That the Circuit Courts of the United States shall from time to time enlarge the number of the commissioners, with a view to afford reasonable facilities to reclaim fugitives from labor, and to the prompt discharge of the duties imposed by this act.

Sec. 4.

And be it further enacted, That the commissioners above named shall have concurrent

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