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2014 - Michelle Howard

Michelle Howard , in full Michelle Janine Howard, also called Michelle J. Howard (born April 30, 1960, Riverside, California, U.S.), U.S. military officer who was the first woman to become a four-star admiral in the U.S. Navy. She also made history as the first African American woman to captain a U.S. naval ship (1999).

Howard was born into a military family—her father served as a master sergeant in the U.S. Air Force—and by the time she was 12 years old, she had started thinking about embarking on a career in the military. Howard discovered, however, that opportunities for women in U.S. military academies during the early 1970s were nonexistent. That circumstance changed when U.S. Pres. Gerald Ford signed (1975) the Military Procurement Bill, which provided for the admission (starting in 1976) of women into the military academies. During high school Howard applied to the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, and upon entering the academy in 1978, she became one of only seven black women in the school’s class of 1,363 students. She graduated (1982) from the Naval Academy and earned (1998) a master’s degree in military arts and sciences from the U.S. Army’s Command & General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

During Howard’s sophomore year at the academy, she piloted her first ship, the destroyer USS Spruance, during a summer training cruise. She served aboard the submarine tender USS Hunley (1982–85) and the training aircraft carrier USS Lexington (1985–87) before being named (1990) the chief engineer aboard the USS Mount Hood. She assumed the duties of first lieutenant (1992) aboard the USS Flint and was the executive officer (1996) on the USS Tortuga. By taking command of the USS Rushmore, Howard became the first African American woman to captain a U.S. naval ship.

She served (May 2004–September 2005) as the commander of Amphibious Squadron 7, which aided in relief in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. She became the first African American woman to lead a U.S. Navy battle group

1917 - When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riiot

This is part three of the award winning documentary, When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot

Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 - Duration: 7:42. rfjacksonyt 9,249 views

Can Atlantas poor neighborhoods be lifted out of poverty? - Duration: 9:36. PBS NewsHour 17,362 views

East St Louis Race Riots (KETC) July 1, 1917 - Duration: 8:04. TheSpot4HiphopTV 397 views

1946 Columbia Race Riot - Duration: 14:47. Emory University 15,394 views

Wilmington Race Riot - Duration: 2:53. Steffi Porter 2,552 views

Steve Harvey Calls Tavis Smiley & Cornel West Uncle Toms For Criticizing Obama [New August 2011] - Duration: 11:12. ChasinDatPaperMedia 1,106,303 views

When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot - Duration: 3:50. seker4me 4,309 views

For Blacks: Rich, Black and Hated by All - Duration: 20:32. Shakaama 44,315 views

When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot - Duration: 3:31. seker4me 2,379 views

Days of Rage: 1964 Race Riots - Duration: 3:25. Channel NewsAsia 48,034 views

Obama Impersonator at Republican Leadership Conference - Duration: 19:16. C-SPAN 1,797,633 views

Rosewood, Florida Destroyed by Rioting White Mob - Duration: 2:23. Voices of the Civil Rights Movement 18,808 views

Dallas VS Atlanta - Which Is Better For Educated Black Women? - Duration: 19:37. Anonymous 16,788 views

Atlanta, hub for black entrepreneurs - Duration: 2:16. AFP news agency 7,224 views

Atlanta.Georgia - Duration: 7:35. ivard1 94,095 views

The Wilmington Massacre_5.8.10.flv - Duration: 2:59. keshia solis 6,743

1985 - Murray, Pauli (1910-1985)

Pauli Murray was born on November 20, 1910 in Baltimore, Maryland, the daughter of Agnes and William Murray. Her father, a Howard University graduate, taught in the Baltimore public schools.  Both of Murray’s parents died when she was a child.  Her mother suffered from a brain hemorrhage and died in 1914. Her father was the victim of typhoid fever and died in 1923.

Despite such heartbreaking tragedy, Murray pursued her life goals. In 1933 she graduated from Hunter College in New York City, New York. Despite a stellar academic record, Murray in 1938 was denied admission into the University of  North Carolina Law School in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. She later enrolled in the Howard University Law School in Washington, D.C. and graduated in 1944. Not long afterwards, Murray sought admission to Harvard University Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts for an advanced law degree but was denied admission because of her gender.  She enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley where she received a master of law degree in 1945. Twenty years later, in 1965, she became the first African American awarded a J.S.D. (a law doctorate) from Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.  Her degree was based on her dissertation, “Roots of the Racial Crisis: Prologue to Policy.”  

Murray argued that her experiences encountering and overcoming racial and gender discrimination gave her special insight into the nature of racial and sexual hierarchies in U.S. and wrote about its various manifestations in America’s legal history.  Murray coined the term “Jane Crow and Jim Crow” to describe the impact of dual discrimination.  She also joined both the civil rights movement and the feminist movement.  In 1966 Murray was one of the founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW) with feminist icon Betty Friedan.

Murray’s life took an abrupt turn when at the age of 62 she entered a seminary and became in 1977 the first black female priest ordained by the Episcopal Church.  On July 1, 1985, cancer claimed the life of Pauli

1962 - Kigali City, Rwanda (1907-- )

Situated over several hills and valleys, Kigali is the capital city of Rwanda and is home to the main administrative and commercial centres of the nation as well as over one million people.

In pre-colonial times Mount Kigali was a site of magical renewal overseen by the Bami (kings) as well as being an important stopover on cross-African caravan trade routes.  In 1907 the city was officially founded by the Germans, who had been granted the colonial concession of Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi at the Berlin Conference of 1885.  After World War I, the Belgians gained control of Rwanda-Burundi through the mandate system of the League of Nations; however, since the administrative tasks for the region were centred in Bujumbura, the capital of Burundi, Kigali grew slowly throughout this period.

After independence on July 1, 1962, Kigali became the capital city of the Republic of Rwanda.  Because of its central location and its good transport links, industry and trade blossomed and the city began to grow.

During the 1994 genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi, Kigali suffered massive population loss; some of the buildings were damaged in fighting between the former Forces Armées Rwandaises (Rwandan Armed Forces: FAR) and the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA).  Other buildings were destroyed simply out of hatred and anger.  Since then, a period of intense rebuilding has seen Kigali develop and thrive.

“Cleanliness and Security” is the motto of Kigali.  In accordance with this motto, the city is a safe and secure place to live, visit, and explore at any hour of the day or night.  The police patrol the streets and the population is encouraged to report anything that may be of potential harm to others.  In fact, Kigali City is regarded to be the safest city in Africa by most international visitors.

Hygiene and cleanliness are also main policy areas for the governing of the city.  Cleaners, working for private companies and cooperatives, are hired by Kigali City to clean highways, streets, and public gardens.  In addition to

1953 - Jakob Daniel Du Toit

Jakob Daniel Du Toit , pseudonym Totius (born Feb. 21, 1877, Paarl, Cape Colony, S.Af.—died July 1, 1953, Pretoria, Transvaal), Afrikaaner poet, pastor, biblical scholar, and the compiler of an Afrikaans Psalter (1936) that is regarded as one of the finest poetic achievements of its kind in Dutch, Flemish, or Afrikaans.

Du Toit was educated in Pretoria, Rustenburg, and Daljosafat, studied at the theological seminary at Burgesdorp, and passed his final examination for the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church in 1899.

On the outbreak of the South African (Boer) War he joined the Boer forces as chaplain. In 1900 he went to the Free University, Amsterdam, where he received a doctor’s degree in theology in 1903 and then entered the ministry. From 1911 he was professor of theology at the University of Potchefstroom, Transvaal; on retirement in 1949 he was elected chancellor.

Du Toit was responsible for the greater part of the translation of the Bible into Afrikaans, completed in 1932. The Calvinism and patriotism confirmed in him by the circumstances of his childhood and training are revealed at a high artistic level in his finest poetry, the patriotic poems in Trekkerswee (1915; “Trekkers’ Grief”) and the personal lyrics in Passieblomme (1934; “Passion Flowers”) and Skemering (1948; “Twilight”). These and other volumes—including Bij die Monument (1908), Verse van Potgieter’s Trek (1909), Wilgerboombogies (1912; “Willow Boughs”), Rachel (1913), and Uit donker Afrika (1936; “From Dark Africa”)—also show the influence of the Flemish poet Guido Gezelle.

1962 - Bahutu Manifesto (1957)

The Bahutu Manifesto, drafted by nine Rwandan Hutu intellectuals in 1957, was a political document that called for Hutu ethnic and political solidarity, as well as the political disfranchisement of the Tutsi people.  It served as the political pretext for the Rwandan Genocide of 1994.  Underscoring the need for Hutu self-preservation amid decades of discrimination by Tutsis, the document denounced the privileged status afforded to the Tutsi minority under the German and Belgian colonial regimes.

On July 1, 1962, Rwanda was granted independence from Belgium.  Up until this time, the Tutsi minority was favored by both the German colonial regime (1894-1919) and the Belgian colonial regime (1919-1962), both of which granted de facto rule to the Tutsi monarchy in exchange for recognition of their authority.  Believing that the lighter-skinned Tutsi people were racially superior to the Hutu, the German and Belgian regimes greatly exaggerated the preexisting occupational and socioeconomic divisions existing between the two groups.

Decades of Tutsi favoritism notwithstanding, prior to granting independence to Rwanda, Belgium realized that it would need to incorporate the Hutu majority into the government to sustain its economically advantageous post-colonial relations with Rwanda.  Consequently some Hutu were groomed for a leadership position in the soon-to-be-independent government.  Fearing reprisals by the Hutu politicians and army personnel, many Tutsi fled Rwanda.

Many Hutu felt that, as the overwhelming majority of the colonys residents (84%), they should politically dominate the country.  As a result, much anti-Tutsi sentiment and talk of retribution began to sweep across the Hutu intellectual class.  The result was the Bahutu Manifesto, a document that called for the political disfranchisement of the Tutsi and banned intermarriage between the two groups.  The Manifesto also called for the banning of the Tutsi from military service.

In 1959 Hutu political leaders overthrew the Tutsi monarchy with the aid of the

2015 - Cuba

The Cuban government freed U.S. aid contractor Alan Gross, who had been in captivity for five years, on Dec. 17, 2014. Gross had been sentenced to 15 years in prison in 2011 after his effort to create a way to communicate outside of the Cuban governments control. The government cited humanitarian grounds as the reason for Gross release.

In response to the prisoner release, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that the U.S. would resume full diplomatic relations with Cuba, which includes opening an embassy in Havana. There hasnt been any diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba since 1961. The prisoner release was part of a deal negotiated in secret over 18 months. Canada hosted most of the talks that led to the deal. Pope Francis also hosted a meeting at the Vatican to help with negotiations between the two countries.

Talks began in early 2015 between the two countries over how to restore diplomatic relations after five decades. Both sides made demands ahead of the talks. Cuba asked the U.S. to remove its name from a list of states that sponsor terrorism. The U.S. insisted that its diplomats should be allowed to work freely and meet with dissidents in Cuba. A second round of talks was scheduled for late Feb. to hammer out these issues and more. Meanwhile, reaction to the resumed relations with the U.S. has been mixed in Cuba. Some praised the move while others were skeptical.

With diplomatic relations restored, the ban for Americans traveling to Cuba was lifted. Before Dec. 2014, Americans could only travel to Cuba with permission from the U.S. State Department. After Dec. 2014, tourists from the U.S. still had to go as part of a religious, educational, and cultural group, but the travel ban being lifted made it easier in other ways for Americans visiting Cuba. Internet access, an embassy, and the use of credit cards were soon available for the first time to assist Americans while in Cuba. Also, the U.S. government began allowing Americans to bring small quantities of items back from Cuba, including

1971 - Missy Elliott

Missy Elliott is a multiple Grammy Award winning musician who is also known for her keen business acumen. She was born on July 1, 1971 in Portsmouth, Virginia as Melissa Arnette Elliott. She had a very difficult childhood; her family was extremely poor, and her father Ronnie regularly abused her mother Patricia. Missy herself was a victim of frequent sexual abuse by an older cousin when she was 8 years old. Although she took little interest in her school work, she had a high IQ and was a popular member of her class, and was always entertaining her friends with her antics. When she was 14 years old, Elliott’s mother finally left her husband and they moved in with family members.

Away from her abusive father, Elliott and her mother began to build a life of their own. In the early 1990s, Elliott formed a band named “Fayze” that was later renamed “Sista”. The band was signed to Elektra Records but their album was never released due to financial issues. She and her fellow member Timbaland continued to work together on several projects, writing songs and producing albums for fellow artists such as Aaliyah. Her album “One in a Million” had several songs written by Elliott and Timbaland, with Elliott also providing backing vocals on many of the tracks. She was also featured on Sean Comb’s (also known as “Puffy”) album.

In 1996, Elliott signed a deal with East West Records and formed her own label, “The Goldmind Inc.”. Her first album, produced by Timbaland, was titled “Supa Dupa Fly” and released in 1997. The lead single from the album was titled “Rain” and the album eventually went platinum. It was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 1998 Grammy Awards. Elliott gained mainstream success and performed live at the MTV Video Music Awards. She continued to produce for other artists including Whitney Houston, Melanie B. from the band “Spice Girls” and Total.

Her second album was titled “Da Real World” and it was released in 1999. This was quite different from her first album, but was just as successful, selling 1.5 million

1961 - Carl Lewis

Carl Lewis is a retired American track and field athlete who is famous for his exceptional Olympic record. Lewis is also the current indoor long jump world record holder; a record which he has held since 1984.

Frederick Carlton Lewis was born on July 1, 1961 in Birmingham, Alabama. His parents, William and Evelyn Lewis, were athletes themselves. Lewis’s parents had founded a local athletics club that helped shape the athletic career of both him and his sister (who also went on to become a professional long jumper). While at the club, Lewis was coached by his father who pushed him on to the long jumping circuit. By his high school years, Lewis began competing at state level championships, and by his junior year, Lewis was by far the best long jumper in New Jersey.

Due to his impressive high school career, Lewis was invited to train at many universities and colleges. He finally chose the University of Houston, mainly due to the fact that he would be coached by the legendary Tom Tellez there, who was considered by many as the best athletic coach of that time. In 1979, Lewis broke the high school long jump record with an 8.13m leap.

Lewis then won the 1980 National Collegiate Athletic Association medal in the long jump category despite battling a knee injury. He then qualified for the 1980 Olympics Long Jump team and the 4x100m relay sprint team, where he won a Gold medal for the relay race category and a Bronze Medal for the long jump category. It was at the 1980 Olympics where people saw Lewis as a serious contender for the 100m sprint category due to his impressive performance at the relay meet. Lewis then bested his personal long jump record at the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships with a stunning 8.63m leap, which was only 0.27m behind the world record at that time. Even so, Lewis held the record for the longest jump at low-altitude.

In 1981, Lewis bested his 100m record at the Southwest Conference Championships when he ran the distance in a stunning 10.00 seconds, which was the fastest time in the

1277 - Baybars I

Baybars I , in full al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī, or Al-Ṣāliḥī, Baybars also spelled Baibars (born 1223, north of the Black Sea—died July 1, 1277, Damascus, Syria), most eminent of the Mamlūk sultans of Egypt and Syria, which he ruled from 1260 to 1277. He is noted both for his military campaigns against Mongols and crusaders and for his internal administrative reforms. The Sirat Baybars, a folk account purporting to be his life story, is still popular in the Arabic-speaking world.

Baybars was born in the country of the Kipchak Turks on the northern shores of the Black Sea. After the Mongol invasion of their country in about 1242, Baybars was one of a number of Kipchak Turks sold as slaves. Turkish-speaking slaves, who had become the military backbone of most Islamic states, were highly prized, and eventually Baybars came into the possession of Sultan al-Ṣāliḥ Najm al-Dīn Ayyūb of the Ayyūbid dynasty of Egypt. Sent, like all the sultan’s newly acquired slaves, for military training to an island in the Nile, Baybars demonstrated outstanding military abilities. Upon his graduation and emancipation, he was appointed commander of a group of the sultan’s bodyguard.

Baybars gained his first major military victory as commander of the Ayyūbid army at the city of Al-Manṣūrah in February 1250 against the crusaders’ army led by Louis IX of France, who was captured and later released for a large ransom. Filled with a sense of their military strength and growing importance in Egypt, a group of Mamlūk officers, led by Baybars, in the same year murdered the new sultan, Tūrān Shāh. The death of the last Ayyūbid sultan was followed by a period of confusion that continued throughout the first years of the Mamlūk sultanate.

Having angered the first Mamlūk sultan, Aybak, Baybars fled with other Mamlūk leaders to Syria and stayed there until 1260, when they were welcomed back to Egypt by the third sultan, al-Muẓaffar Sayf al-Dīn Quṭuz. He restored them to their place in the army and conferred a village

1970 - University of Maryland, Eastern Shore (1886- )

The University of Maryland, Eastern Shore is a historically black land grant institution located in Princess Anne, Maryland.  The school was initiated under the auspices of the Delaware Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and began as a branch campus for Morgan College (Morgan State University) in 1886.  The school initially served as a feeder school for the Centenary Biblical Institute that served African American students from the eastern shore of Maryland and was located at Princess Anne Conference Academy.  The school officially opened in 1887 with nine students and one teacher; by the end of the first year, enrollment would increase to thirty-seven students.

The 1890 Morrill Land Grant extended the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1865 to include blacks and mandated that states had to accommodate the higher education of African American students or lose federal support for land grant institutions.  Rather than admit black students to the land grant college at College Park (now the University of Maryland), the state of Maryland chose to negotiate with Morgan State College in order to meet the federal mandate. The change into a land grant status allowed the branch campus to become a separate institution.  It also brought desperately needed funding to the campus which by 1894 became known as the Maryland State Agricultural College for Negroes. 

In 1919 the state of Maryland assumed full control over the institution and renamed it the Eastern Shore Branch of the Maryland Agricultural College.  Ironically in the 1940s the Eastern Shore campus received a significant increase in state funding when lawsuits calling for the racial integration of the University of Maryland prompted state legislators to improve all of the black state-controlled colleges.  When the integration fears subsided, the state reduced the funding. 

The campus was almost shut down in 1947 due to lack of access, low quality education, and the fear among some black and white leaders that Eastern Shore was allowed to remain a college

1971 - Constantine, Learie (1901-1971)

Learie Nicholas Constantine, Baron Constantine, was an international cricketer, journalist, politician, and lawyer. Constantine was the first person of African/Caribbean ancestry to be invested as a life peer in the United Kingdom. Born in Trinidad and Tobago in 1901 he was the son of a plantation foreman.

From an early age his father encouraged him to play cricket. In 1923 Constantine was selected for the West Indies international team and came to Britain to play in the pre-test matches that eventually led to the West Indies inclusion in Test cricket in 1928. Constantine was a valuable all-rounder, being skilled at batting, bowling, and fielding. He was the first West Indian to take a wicket in a test match and the first person to ever take five wickets in one inning. He was so successful that he was asked to join the Nelson Cricket Club, a team based in Lancashire in North England. Constantine moved to Nelson with his wife, Norma, and daughter and played with the club for 10 seasons. In 1933 he published his first work of many, Cricket and I, with the help of his lodger, the prolific writer and political theorist, C.L.R. James.  In 1947 he was invested as a Member of the British Empire (MBE) for his services to cricket.

After his retirement from professional cricket Constantine began working in a lawyer’s office, a career he had previously pursued before his years of professional cricket. In 1942 the British government had brought in numerous black engineers and factory workers from the West Indies to help the war effort. Constantine was asked to liaise with them and became a civil servant.

In 1943 he was asked to Captain a West Indian team at a series of exhibition matches at Lord’s Cricket Ground. Before he arrived in London he telephoned the hotel and confirmed his stay and confirmed that he was coloured. On his arrival, despite the fact that he had confirmed his colour with them beforehand, the hotel refused to allow him to check in. Constantine brought an action against the hotel for a Breach of

1917 - When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot

This is part five of the award winning documentary, When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot

The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 - Duration: 5:48. Department of History at Ohio State 12,722 views

The FBI Files: Season 6 - Ep 10 The Atlanta Prison Riot - Duration: 49:42. FilmRise True Crime 279,310 views

East St Louis Race Riots (KETC) July 1, 1917 - Duration: 8:04. TheSpot4HiphopTV 397 views

When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riiot - Duration: 4:11. seker4me 1,881 views

Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 - Duration: 7:42. rfjacksonyt 9,249 views

Documentary on East St. Louis: War Zone-The Destruction Of An All-American City - Duration: 46:58. soln4suhreborn 67,387 views

Wilmington Race Riot - Duration: 2:53. Steffi Porter 2,552 views

Marcus Garvey on the East St. Louis Riots 1 of 3 - Duration: 6:12. WSTX Radio 3,465 views

Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 (123) - Duration: 3:34. Breeze Boatright 35 views

The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 - Duration: 4:58. Emory University 67,412 views

Springfield Had No Shame: The Springfield Race Riot of 1908 Part One - Duration: 9:01. Matthew Parbs 10,772 views

The Ojays Ship Ahoy - Duration: 9:38. seker4me 409,039 views

When Blacks Succeed: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot - Duration: 3:50. seker4me 4,309 views

Springfield Race Riots 1908 - Documentary (Part 5/6) - Duration: 4:10. flipcircus 2,478 views

The Story Of The Tulsa Race Riots Will Disgust You - Duration: 5:19. The Young Turks 132,857 views

Race Riots of 1968 Pt 5 - Duration: 9:25. Abdul Jalil 9,534 views