Athol Fugard , in full Athol Harold Lannigan Fugard (born June 11, 1932, Middelburg, South Africa), South African dramatist, actor, and director who became internationally known for his penetrating and pessimistic analyses of South African society during the apartheid period.
Fugard’s earliest plays were No-Good Friday and Nongogo (both published in Dimetos and Two Early Plays, 1977), but it was The Blood Knot (1963), produced for stage (1961) and television (1967) in both London and New York City, that established his reputation. The Blood Knot, dealing with brothers who fall on opposite sides of the racial colour line, was the first in a sequence Fugard called “The Family Trilogy.” The series continued with Hello and Goodbye (1965) and Boesman and Lena (1969) and was later published under the title Three Port Elizabeth Plays (1974). Boesman and Lena, filmed in 1973 with Fugard as Boesman, played to a wider audience than any previous South African play; another film adaptation was released in 2000.
Fugard’s willingness to sacrifice character to symbolism caused some critics to question his commitment. Provoked by such criticism, Fugard began to question the nature of his art and his emulation of European dramatists. He began a more imagist approach to drama, not using any prior script but merely giving actors what he called “a mandate” to work around “a cluster of images.” From this technique derived the imaginative if shapeless drama of Orestes (published in Theatre One: New South African Drama, 1978), and the documentary expressiveness of Sizwe Banzi Is Dead (revised as Sizwe Bansi Is Dead), The Island, and Statements After an Arrest Under the Immorality Act (all published in Statements: Three Plays, 1974).
A much more traditionally structured play, Dimetos (1977), was performed at the 1975 Edinburgh Festival. A Lesson from Aloes (published 1981) and “Master Harold”…and the Boys (1982) were performed to much acclaim in London and New York City, as was The Road to Mecca (1985; film 1992), the story of an