Spelman College, a historically black, liberal arts college for women, opened in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1881. The previous year, a fledgling New England organization called the Women’s American Baptist Home Mission Society secured funds for a college for freedwomen in the city. Approximately one hundred African American women soon began attending school at the institution they created, the Atlanta Female Baptist Seminary.
Instructed by four white, northern-born teachers, the students took classes in the basement of an Atlanta church until two of those teachers made a fateful visit to a Cleveland, Ohio Baptist church in June of 1882. Two members of the congregation, oil magnate John D. Rockefeller and his wife, Laura Spelman, donated funds to the school. The Rockefellers visited Atlanta to celebrate the third anniversary of the seminary two years later, and during the ceremony, the trustees renamed the institution Spelman to honor Mrs. Rockefellers abolitionist family.
Because Atlanta would not open a black public high school until 1924, the first generation of Spelman students enrolled in courses equivalent to high school instruction. In 1887, Spelman awarded its first diplomas at this level. Two women received the school’s first baccalaureate degrees in 1901.
In Spelman’s first decades, a series of notoriously strict presidents, all friends of the Rockefeller family from the Northeast, required students to adhere to the standards of Victorian-era feminine propriety. Women wore hats and gloves in public, and they needed special written permission to travel off campus. Under the title “domestic training,” they learned domestic skills such as sewing, cooking, and laundry work. Two of the school’s founders, Harriet Giles and Sophia Packard, believed that former slaves lacked correct work habits, so they demanded that Spelman students rise at four thirty each morning to wash and iron their clothes, a practice that continued into the 1920s.
Spelmans curriculum focused heavily on teacher training, although