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Black nationalism

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Black nationalism is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which holds the belief that black people are a race and seeks to develop and maintain a black national identity.

Black nationalist activism revolves around social, political, and economic empowerment of black communities and people, especially to resist assimilation into white American culture (through integration or otherwise), and maintain a distinct black identity.[1]

Martin Delany (1812–1885), an African-American abolitionist, was the grandfather of Black nationalism.[2]

Inspired by the success of the Haitian Revolution, the origins of Black and African indigenous nationalism in political thought lie in the 19th century with people like Marcus Garvey, Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, Henry McNeal Turner, Martin Delany, Henry Highland Garnet, Edward Wilmot Blyden, Paul Cuffe, etc. The repatriation of African-American slaves to Liberia or Sierra Leone was a common Black nationalist theme in the 19th century. Marcus Garvey"s Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1910s and 1920s was the most powerful black nationalist movement to date, claiming millions of members. Garveyite"s movement was opposed by mainline black leaders, and crushed by government action. However its many alumni remembered its inspiring rhetoric.[3]

According to Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Black nationalism as a philosophy can be examined from three different periods. giving rise to various ideological perspectives for what we can today consider Black nationalism.[4]

The first period of Pre-Classical Black nationalism began when the first Africans were brought as slaves to the Americas through the Revolutionary period.

The second period of Black Nationalism began after the Revolutionary War. This period refers to the time when a sizeable number of educated Africans within the colonies (specifically within New England and Pennsylvania) had become disgusted with the

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