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Hatshepsut: How She Became a Female Pharaoh of Egypt

Hatshepsut was a pharaoh (ruler) of Egypt, one of very few women to hold that title. A major temple in her honor was built at Deir el-Bahri (Dayru l-Bahri) near Thebes. We know Hatshepsut mostly through references to her during her lifetime that were meant to reinforce her power. We dont have the sort of personal biographical material that we might have for more recent women of history: letters from the woman herself or from those who knew her, for instance.

She was lost from history for many years, and scholars have had different theories about when to date her reign.

Hatshepsut was born about 1503 BCE. She reigned from about 1473 to 1458 BCE (the dates are not certain).  She was part of the Eighteenth Dynasty, New Kingdom.

Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and Ahmose. Thutmose I was the third pharaoh in Egypts 18th Dynasty, and was likely the son of Amenhotep I and Senseneb, a minor wife or concubine. Ahmose was the Great Royal Wife of Thutmose I; she may have been a sister or daughter of Amenhotep I. Three children, including Hapshetsup, are associated with her.

Hatshepsut married her half-brother Thutmose II, whose father was Thutmose I and mother was Mutnofret. As Great Royal Wife of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut bore him one daughter, Neferure, one of three known offspring of Thutmose II. Thutmose II

Thutmose III, son of Thutmose II and a minor wife, Iset, became the Pharaoh on the death of Thutmose II, who ruled for about 14 years.

Thutmose III was likely very young (estimated between 2 and 10 years old), and Hatshepsut, his stepmother and aunt, became his regent.

Hatshepsut claimed, during her reign, that her father had intended her to be a co-heir with her husband. She gradually assumed the titles, powers and even the ceremonial clothing and beard of a male Pharaoh, claiming legitimacy through a divine birth, even calling herself a female Horus. She was formally crowned as king in about year 7 of her co-reign with Thutmose III.

Senenmut, an architect, became a key advisor and powerful official

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