In 1989 the Boston branch of the NAACP won two major lawsuits for housing discrimination . Both cases were unique because they were the 'first of their kind' in the country to award individuals monetary compensation, according to Attorney Dianne Wilkerson, the NAACP Housing Committee Chairperson. The first case filed in 1978 against the U.S. Office of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) took 11 years to move through the courts. The court ruled that HUD failed in its statutory duty to monitor federal funds and in doing so contributed to discriminatory practices against Black residents in Boston. This ruling brought sweeping institutional changes in federal housing expenditures and requires monitoring and enforcement by the Boston Fair Housing Commission. The second case was filed in May 1988 against the Boston Housing Authority for discrimination in its selection policy of segregating prospective tenants who were Black, Hispanic, and Asian-American, by 'systematically steering hundreds of Black families away from predominantly white housing projects in Charlestown, South Boston, and East Boston.' In addition to the monetary compensation afforded to the victims, plaintiffs not already in public housing will get first choice of vacancies. The NAACP victory also included the creation of a Community Benefits Fund, financed at half a million dollars, to develop projects for integrated housing in Boston.